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Hudson Milestones

List of Terms used at Hudson Milestones

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Adaptive Behavior/Self Help - A wide range of skills used by a child or person to meet his needs in his environment (i.e. toileting skills, feeding skills, grooming/dressing skills, etc.)  

Adjusted Age - Adjusted age of child determined by subtracting the number of weeks he/she was born prematurely from his/her chronological age (e.g., a 9 month old who was born 8 weeks early would have an adjusted age of 7 months).   

Administrative Office - The building located on Route 440 in Jersey City. It is the location for the personnel office, as well as many executive, administration, and support staff.   

Adult Child of an Alcoholic (ACOA) - An individual who, as a child, was engaged in an abusive and/or neglectful relationship, due to the alcoholism of a parent resulting in chronic emotional issues.   

Adult Training Center (ATC) - Day programs for individuals with disabilities, traditionally provided on-site but increasingly community oriented. Programming is person-centered and involves a combination of vocational skills, practical arts, and personal awareness training.   

Aggression - Hostile or destructive behavior or actions.   

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) - Financial support for low or no income families which, combined with Food Stamps, makes up the bulk of the formally Federally maintained system popularly know as "welfare".   

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) - Legislation of 1990 making it illegal to discriminate in employment against a qualified individual with a disability. Also outlaws discrimination against individuals with disabilities in State and local government services, public accommodations, transportation and telecommunications.   

Asperger's Syndrome (also called Asperger's disorder, Asperger's or AS) is the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in which there is no general delay in language or cognitive development. Like the more sever ASDs, it is characterized by difficulties in social interaction and restricted, stereotyped patterns of behavior and interests.  

Assistant Residential Coordinator (ARC) - A a full time position in Residential Services which involves direct care of developmentally disabled adults as well as assistance with management of a community residential site. Reports to the Residential Coordinator.   

Assistive Technology/Adaptive Equipment - Special equipment/devices used by people with disabilities to support themselves in their environment (e.g., communication devices, switches, seating inserts, wheelchairs, adapted utensils, etc.)  

Association for Retarded Citizens (Hudson ARC) - Previous name for "Hudson Milestones." Hudson Milestones is a private, not-for-profit corporation with a volunteer board of directors that has been working for nearly 50 years to support the rights of people with developmental disabilities, and to ensure their chance for a normal life. Hudson Milestones offers wide variety of programs to people with disabilities of all ages with the common goal of supporting people with disabilities in their effort to lead productive and independent lives as accepted members of their communities. Hudson Milestones is funded by grants from the State of N.J., County Freeholders, local municipalities, and private contributions.   

Attention Deficit Disorder/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/HD) - According to DSM-IV, a disorder in which the essential features are developmentally inappropriate lack of attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity.   

Autism- A disturbance of speech and language, rate of development, ability to relate to people and things, perception and mannerisms. The cause of autism is unknown, but is suspected to be biological or genetic.   

Axis - One of five classifications in the DSM-IV used by clinicians in the assessment and treatment of mental disorders. Mental retardation is categorized under Axis II.   

Behavior Modification Plan (BMP) - A series of steps designed to change the actions of a person by controlling the environmental and interpersonal interactions which, for most adults, generally precede or follow the behaviors being addressed.   

Behaviorist - The person responsible for developing and implementing individualized plans, in various settings, for adults with developmental disabilities, for the purpose of enhancing learning of positive and functional behaviors.   

Bureau of Guardianship Services (BGS) - Public guardianship provided by the State of New Jersey. There is no cost involved, there is a continuity of service and guardianship workers are knowledgeable about State policies affecting the disabled. On the other hand, the case workers' caseloads are large, so individual attention is not provided as often as it should be. Parents lose the rights to make important decisions.   

Calstat - The trade name for a substance which kills potential disease-spreading contaminates on the hands without need for water or drying. Recommended for times and places where hand washing is not possible.   

Case Manager - Individual, employed by the State (i.e. DDD), who oversees and coordinates service provision for assignees with disabilities. He/she is responsible for referral to appropriate services and assures that all support systems (parents/guardian, residential providers, employers, day programming, psychiatric and medical care) are coordinated and consistent with one another.   

Cash/Stipend - A program funded by DDD. Clients/families may request money to purchase goods/services not otherwise available through programs. Case managers must make referrals to the regional office, which refers approved requests to providers, such as Hudson Milestones, who have Cash Stipend Contracts.   

Cerebral Palsy (CP) - A general term applied to a group of permanent, non-progressive symptoms caused by damage to the developing brain resulting in impairment of voluntary muscle control.   

Child Study Team (CST) - A multidisciplinary team of professionals who conduct evaluations for educational placements. The team is comprised of a school physician, psychologist, learning disability teacher consultant (LDTC), and school social workers.   

Chronological Age (CA) - How old a person is based on his/her actual date of birth and expressed in years and months.   

Cognitive Development - The way a child/adult thinks and reasons (examples of levels of cognitive development include cause and effect, object permanence, etc.   

Communication Log - A document used in the Residential programs which allows staff to leave written messages for staff members on other shifts.   

Community Care Waiver (CCW) - Part of the Federal Medicaid funding system which provides the State with money for programming, such as that provided by Hudson Milestones, for individuals with disabilities.   

Crisis Management Training - Teaches the concepts of verbal de-escalation as well as physical intervention policies and practices.   

Daily Training Records (DTRs) - A form for data collection regarding progress on IHP goals. Progress is rated and recorded for each objective on a regular basis. This information is then used to write monthly reports, and as a basis for evaluating the appropriateness of existing IHP goals and objectives, as well as assisting in planning for future goals.   

Department of Health and Senior Services (DHSS) - The section of NJ's State Government which funds and oversees Early Intervention in New Jersey.   

Developmental Day Care - A day care program which specializes in working with children who have developmental delays.   

Developmental Delay - A measurable deficit in a child's ability to perform a task in comparison to what is expected for a child of the same chronological age.   

Developmental Disability - A severe, chronic disability of person five years of age or older that is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or combination of mental and physical impairments; is manifested before the person attains age 22; is likely to continue indefinitely; and results in substantial functional limitation in three or more of the following areas of major life activity; self-care, receptive and expressive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, and economic self-sufficiency.   

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th Edition (DSM-IV) - A compilation of all known mental disorders with definitions, used by psychiatrists and psychologists to assist in the diagnosis of an individual.   

Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) - That section of New Jersey's State Government entrusted to oversee services for people with developmental disabilities. DDD responds to needs at the community level by contracting with private providers (like Hudson Milestones) for services while retaining case management responsibilities. DDD funded programs at Hudson Milestones include: Residential services, ATCs, Respite, Cash/Stipend, some day care and pre-service training.   

Division of Mental Health Services (DMHS) - That section of State government responsible for services to individuals with mental illness. Interacts with DDD and Hudson Milestones in servicing those who are dually diagnosed.   

Division of Vocational Rehabilitation Services (DVR) - Offers people with disabilities an opportunity to become independent through employment by providing whatever assistance is needed to keep them working.   

Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS) - The section of NJ State government responsible for child protective services and the funding of non-school/educational programs for children from birth to age 21. DYFS contracts with Hudson Milestones to provide day care and summer camp.   

Down Syndrome - A genetic, irreversible disorder caused by the addition of a third 21st chromosome. Formally known as mongolism. Some characteristics include mental retardation as well as a sameness of physical features across the population.   

Dual Diagnosis - An assessment of an individual indicating that in addition to one condition, he/she also suffers from another. At Hudson Milestones, this term is most commonly applied to a combination of mental retardation and mental illness.   

Early Intervention Program (EIP) - Provides family-centered services to children from birth to age three, who have developmental delays, and their families.   

Economic self-sufficiency - Maintaining adequate employment and financial support.   

Epilepsy - A condition of the nervous system characterized by sudden seizures, muscle convulsions and partial or total loss of consciousness due to abnormal chemical-electrical discharges in the brain. Epilepsy is not a disease.   

Expressive Language - Communication involving verbal speech, nonverbal behavior (signs, gestures, etc.) and assisted communication, enabling a person to express ideas, feelings and information to others.   

Failure to Thrive - A broad term that denotes growth failure resulting from organic disorders (e.g. GE reflux), non-organic disorders (e.g. infant neglect), or a combination of both.   

Family Care Home - Community residences where nonprofessionals are licensed by the State to provide a home to one or more people with disabilities. Individuals in family care homes are often fully integrated into the regular routine of the household.   

Family-Centered - Driven by the concerns and priorities of the family. Family-centered services are based on an equal partnership between families and professionals, and promote trust and respect.   

Fine Motor - The control/use of muscles for fine (small) movements such as buttoning a shirt, cutting with scissors, writing, etc.   

Flaccid - Lacking firmness, resilience, or muscle tone; floppy. The preferred pronunciation is flak-sid.   

Foster Parent - A DYFS licensed individual/family entrusted with the care and well-being of a child who cannot live with his/her natural family. Such care is usually temporary and is evaluated at regular intervals.   

Fragile X - Genetic syndrome now believed to be a significant causative factor in mental retardation. Individuals with Fragile X syndrome have great difficulty processing sensory input, and are frequently restless and agitated due to overstimulation.   

Feeding Tube - A surgical implant that allows the direct introduction of special nutritional preparations into the digestive system, bypassing mouth feeding.   

GE Reflux - Occurs when the stomach contents spontaneously back up into the esophagus. If severe enough, can cause failure to thrive, vomiting, aspiration, etc.   

GL Code - A four digit General Ledger number that denotes, for the bookkeeping office, a budget expenditure.   

Gross Motor - Coordination of large muscles for movement as when walking, throwing a ball, jumping, etc.   

Group Home - Living arrangements for adults with developmental disabilities, which allow integration into the mainstream of community life. Accepting residents from the state developmental centers and community families, these houses provide an alternative to institutional placement, and to living at home when no longer possible or advisable. Hudson Milestones operates six Group Homes as part of its Community Residential Services. These are located in Bayonne, Jersey City, Kearny, North Bergen and Seacaucus. The first opened in 1984. Each house affords supervised opportunity for self-direction, in all life skill areas, consistent individual abilities.   

Guardian - An individual or agency, appointed by a court of competent jurisdiction, legally responsible to act on behalf of a minor or incompetent adult to assure provision for the health, safety and welfare of the individual and to protect his/her rights. In New Jersey a parent is guardian of his/her child until the child reaches age 18, after that, the parent is guardian only if appointed by the court. DDD must evaluate each developmentally disabled person (18 years of age or older) it serves to determine if he/she is incompetent and in need of a guardian. In some cases a public or private guardian, other than the parent, is appointed.   

Guardianship - A legal proceeding in which the court designates a parent, relative, friend, or organization to act on behalf of an individual who has developmental disabilities and is unable to manage his or her personal affairs without assistance. Once guardianship is obtained, it may extend for the lifetime of the individual unless terminated by the court acting on its own or at the request of the guardian.   

Hydrocephalus - A condition in which the normal circulation/reabsorption of cerebral spinal fluid is obstructed resulting in a buildup of the fluid in the brain. Shunting of the fluid is often necessary. Brain damage may occur as a result of hydrocephalus (also hydrocephaly).   

IDEA/PL - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act formerly known as the Education of the Handicapped Children Amendments of 1986 (P.L.99-457). This act supports the provision of education services to children, from birth to age 21, who have special needs.   

Ignore/Redirect - A method, based on the principles of behavior modification, for eliminating unwanted behaviors and shaping desired ones starting from the premise that attention-seeking behaviors will decrease if no reinforcement is provided (ignore), and that knowledge of a person's interest can allow one to provide a desired alternative to such behavior (re-direct).   

Independant Living - The extent to which the person exerts control and choice over his or her own life.   

In Home Respite - A DDD-funded program where referred families are matched with a Hudson Milestones Respite Provider. Respite services are provided at regularly scheduled periods in an effort to relieve families of some of the stress they experience in caring for a relative with special needs.   

Individual Education Plan (IEP) - A written plan developed for a developmentally disabled child as a CST meeting which sets forth goals and measurable objectives, and describes an integrated, sequential program of individually designed education activities and/or related services to achieve the stated goals and objectives.   

Individual Habilitation Plan (IHP) - A document that describes an individual's strengths, weakness', and also his/her desires for the future. It specifies objectives to be worked on in order to reach desired future goals. The IHP is rewritten each year at an annual meeting.   

Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) - The written plan for providing early intervention and other services to eligible children from birth to age three, and their families. It is based on the concerns and priorities of each individual family.   

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) - The figure arrived at by dividing one's mental age (MA) by one's chronological age (CA) then multiplying by 100. IQs are obtained in terms of the distribution of scores obtained for people of the same age. These standardization samples were chosen with care and adequately represent a cross section of the American population along dimensions of age, sex, rural or urban residence, race, occupation, and education.   

Interdisciplinary Team (IDT) - IDT members may include the client, case manager, guardian, sponsor or group home representative, family member(s), employer, job coach or teacher, and, where applicable, tutor, therapist or other people regularly involved in the client's care. This group meets at least once annually for the rewriting of the client's IHP, but it also meets whenever there is a major life change, challenge or decision to be made that requires discussion. They are the client's "support team."  

Learning - General cognitive competence and ability to acquire new behaviors, perceptions and information, and to apply experiences to new situations.   

Medicaid - A program jointly funded by the State and Federal Governments which reimburses hospitals, physicians, and other eligible health care professionals for providing care to qualifying individuals who cannot finance their own medical expenses.   

Medicare - A program under the Social Security Administration that reimburses hospitals and physicians for medical care provided to qualifying people over 65 years old.   

Mental Age (MA) - The degree of general mental ability possessed by the average child of a chronological age corresponding to that expressed by the MA score on a standardized intelligence test.   

Mental Retardation (MR) - Significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning resulting in or associated with concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period.   

MICA - Mentally ill, chemical substance abuser.   

Microcephaly - Abnormal smallness of the head.   

Mobility - Ability to use fine and gross motor skills, and the ability to move one's person from one place to another with or without mechanical aids.   

Monthly Progress Reports - A collection of data and record of progress toward IHP goals and objectives based on data from DTRs. In addition, progress reports record overall medical and health information, daily behavior patterns, social and recreational activities, financial status and any future training needs.   

Muscle Tone - The tension present in resting muscles.   

Natural Environments - Any setting in which a person would typically be found such as a home, park, child care center, etc.   

Normal Routine - The daily activities of any individual. The concept of normal routine is used to redirect an individual to a comfortable and recognizable activity in the event of a crisis.   

Nurse - A person educated and trained to care for the sick or disabled.   

Occupational Center of Hudson County (OCHC( - A sheltered workshop in Jersey City.   

Occupational Therapist (OT) - A person trained to help children/adults with fine movements (such as eye-hand coordination) and self-help skills including any adaptive devices which may be needed. They are registered through a national organization.   

Oral Motor/Feeding Development - The way in which a child/adult uses the muscles in his/her face, lips, and mouth for eating and sucking.   

Organic Brain Syndrome - a diagnosis frequently found in case files of individuals with a mental retardation, generally used when some biological central nervous system cause is clear, but a definite cause cannot be pinpointed. This category has been eliminated from DSM-IV "because it implies that the other disorders in the manual do not have an "organic" component."  

Over The Counter (OTC) - Any medication that can be purchased without a prescription.   

Part B - Part B of IDEA which supports the provision of early intervention services to children from three to 21 years of age.   

Part C/PL 99-457 - Part C of IDEA (formerly known as "Part H") which supports the provision of early intervention services to children from birth to three years of age.   

Person-Centered - Specific to an individual based on his or her goals, abilities, wants, etc. Rather than a "Standard" for all people Person Centered Planning means a process of helping individuals, in accordance with their needs and preferences, to achieve a lifestyle that is consistent with the norms and patterns of general society, and in ways which incorporate the principles of age appropriateness and least restrictive interventions.   

Personal Needs Allowance (PNA) - Monthly allowance given to clients who are not their own SSI payee. Money is used for items (such as toiletries), recreation and other desired spending.   

Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) - Disorders characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, or the presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities. Of the disorders belonging this category (autism, Rett's, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger's, etc.), autism is the most common and the most severe.   

Physical Therapist (PT) - A person trained to help children/adults with gross motor movements, such as learning to walk, building trunk strength, etc.   

Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) - An encyclopedia of information about drugs; their chemistry, detailed biological action, side effects, dosages, and drug interaction warnings. It also provides color pictures of most commonly prescribed medications.   

Pica - An abnormal craving or appetite for non-food substances, such as dirt, paint, mud or clay.   

Procedural Safeguards - A parent's rights and protection under state and federal laws governing early intervention (i.e. confidentiality, written notice, consent, etc.)  

Psychotropic - Any drug or agent which alters perception or behavior.   

Receptive Language - A person's understanding of what is being communicated to him. It may be transmitted to the person through verbal, gestural, visual, or written communications.   

Regression - Relapse of reversion to a state of decreased maturity, less acceptable behavior, or poorer health than what an individual had previously achieved.   

Regional Early Intervention Collaborative/Northeast Regional Early Intervention Collaborative (REIC/NREIC) - A nonprofit organization funded by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services in order to provide leadership in planning for a comprehensive system of early intervention within and across regions, facilitation of local delivery of service, and serve as family support center. The NREIC serves Hudson, Passaic, and Bergen Counties.   

Requisition Form - The form used to begin the process of purchasing goods or services from an outside vendor. Once signed by a Department Head, the requisition form will become a purchase order, requiring the signatures of the Department Head, Director of Administration Services, and the executive Director for approval.   

Respite Day or Residential Placement - A residential and/or day program placement, usually of temporary duration, of an individual due to sudden change in circumstances (e.g., death of parent, etc.) or the need of the current provider to have a break (e.g., vacation, stress release, surgery, etc.)  

Residential Coordinator (RC) - The individual responsible for the day-to-day supervisory operations of an individual residential program.   

Schizophrenia - A group of psychotic disorders characterized by withdrawal from reality, illogical patterns of thinking, delusions and/or auditory and/or visual hallucinations. Schizophrenia is thought to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain or genetic factors. Drug treatment is often successful in combination with other ongoing supports.   

Seizure Disorder - A disorder characterized by erratic electrical/chemical discharges in the brain resulting in convulsions and partial or total loss of consciousness. (See epilepsy)  

Self-care - Daily activities enabling a person to meet basic life needs for food, hygiene, and appearance.   

Self-direction - Management and taking control over one's own social and personal life, and the ability to make decisions affecting and protecting one's self-interest.   

Self-Injurious Behavior (SIB) - Any activity an individual engages in that brings harm to him/herself. The purpose of such behavior might be anger, attention-seeking, or self-stimulation.   

Sensory Integration/Sensory Motor - The neurological process that organizes sensation from the environment making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.   

Service Coordinator - The individual responsible for coordinating all services across agency lines, assisting families in gaining access to needed services, and facilitating the timely delivery of available services. This individual is employed by SCHS for early intervention.   

Shunt - A surgically implanted tube used to drain fluids from the body to prevent damage.   

Skill-Development Home - Community-based residential placement for adults with developmental disabilities that has a more formally guided structure, which is based upon client needs, than a Family Care Home.   

Social/Emotional Development - The way in which a child/adult relates to others such as peers and family, and shows his/her emotions.   

Special Child Health Services (SCHS) - The single point of entry for early intervention services in New Jersey. It is a program which promotes early identification, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of children from birth to 21 years of age, with special health needs by providing case management and service coordination. Each county in NJ has its own SCHS.   

Special Educator - A certified teacher of the handicapped, or individual who has a specialization in early intervention, and is primarily responsible for consultation about cognitive skill development on the early intervention team.   

Speech/Language Pathologist (SLP) - A person trained to help children/adults with communication, language, and feeding skills. SLPs are licensed by the State of New Jersey.   

Spina Bifida/Myelomeningocele - A congenital defect in which part of the spinal column is imperfectly closed so that part of the meninges (membranes enclosing the brain and spinal cord) or spinal cord protrudes, often resulting in hydrocephalus and other neurological disorders.   

Statewide Parent Advocacy Network (SPAN) - A network which provides information and support to families so that they can be effective advocates for themselves and their children with special needs. SPAN offers informative materials on rights in general, training to support families in becoming effective advocates and parent-to-parent support and technical assistance.   

Supervised Apartments - A community residential service option which allow more independence than group home living. A building with four client apartments is operated by the Hudson Milestones in Bayonne. Each apartment houses three clients who live alone but receive support and assistance from staff.   

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) - A monthly allowance for people who are eight 65 years of age or older, blind, or have a disability and who do not have much income or holdings. Money is available for disabled and blind children also. SSI recipients are usually eligible for food stamps and Medicaid, as well.   

Supported Living - A highly flexible set of services and supports provided in a variety of settings, including what was formerly known as Supportive Living Programs. Supported Living services may also be provided in unlicensed settings, such as an individual's own home or his/her family home.   top

Surrogate Parent - An individual appointed by the EIP to serve in a parental capacity in implementing the IFSP. Surrogate parents have the same rights, roles, and responsibilities as other parents.   top

Trans-disciplinary Team - Members of various disciplines working together at all levels to provide services to clients. Roles are often blended to enhance service provision (e.g., a Physical Therapist provides PT to a child and also works on communication skills, cognitive skills, and behavior with consultation from other staff).   top

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